CCUS; IGCC; and other Advanced Fuel Technology Projects
Advanced Fuel Technologies are an integral part of the WIA’s Strategic Plan. There are lots of advancements worldwide and more specifically, in North America. The world’s first post-combustion CCUS facility in conjunction with a coal-fired generation facility occurred in Saskatchewan and commenced operation on October 2, 2014 with a number of CCUS facility in various stages of development. An interactive database which lists many of the commercial-size facilities around the globe (both operating and under development) is available here
A summary of the commercial CCUS facilities associated with the generation of electricity and which the WIA is monitoring and supporting is as follows:
Wyoming Integrated Test Center: The Wyoming Integrated Test Center is a public-private partnership that will provide space for researchers to test Carbon Capture, Utilization and Sequestration (CCUS) technologies using 20 MW of actual coal based flue gas. Along with testing capture technologies, additional research will look at taking flue gas and turning it into a marketable commodity. The ITC is located at the Dry Fork Station in Gillette, Wyoming. The project is managed by the Wyoming Infrastructure Authority. Learn more about the Wyoming Integrated Test Center at http://www.wyomingitc.org/
SaskPower’s Boundary Dam Post-Combustion Project: The Boundary Dam Project will see the integration of a rebuilt coal-fired generation unit with carbon capture technology, resulting in low-emission power generation. In 2014, this will become the World’s First Post-Combustion Coal-Fired CCS project. A video tour of the facility can be viewed http://www.saskpowerccs.com/tour/
This project will transform the aging Unit #3 at Boundary Dam Power Station near Estevan, Saskatchewan into a reliable, long-term producer of 110 megawatts (MW) of base-load electricity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by one million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year. That’s equivalent to taking more than 250,000 cars off Saskatchewan roads annually.
The captured CO2 will be transported by pipeline to nearby oil fields in southern Saskatchewan where it will be used for enhanced oil recovery. CO2 not used for enhanced oil recovery will be stored in the Aquistore Project.
In addition to CO2, there will be opportunities for the sale of other byproducts from the Project. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) will be captured, converted to sulphuric acid and sold for industrial use. Fly ash, a by-product of coal combustion, will also be sold for use in ready-mix concrete, pre-cast structures and concrete products….
A summary of the Project:
- Location: near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada
- Technology: Post Combustion CCUS
- Capture Process: Cansolv (a Shell subsidiary)–(Amine Based)
- Gross MW: 139
- Net MW after Parasitic Load: 110
- Project Cost: $800 million (US)
- CO2 Removal Rate: 90%
- EOR Component: yes
- Operation Status: Operating
- Website: http://www.saskpowerccs.com/ccs-projects/boundary-dam-carbon-capture-project/carbon-capture-project/
Mississippi Power’s Kemper County IGCC Facility: Mississippi Power, a subsidiary of Southern Company, is progressing with plans to build and operate a 582MW lignite-fired IGCC plant at Kemper County in Mississippi. The project will use two transport integrated gasifier trains, and aims to capture 3.5 million tonnes of CO2 per annum. The project began construction during 2011 and is scheduled to be operational by 2016. A video tour of the facility can be viewed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BB5IBda9Gyw
The plant will include carbon capture and sequestration, which aims to reduce 65% of the facility’s CO2 emissions. Captured CO2 will then be transported by pipeline for use on EOR projects, and at least one CO2 buyer has already been secured…..
A summary of the Project:
- Location: 20 miles north of Meridian, MS
- Technology: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) TRIGTM
- Capture Process: MHIA (Amine Based)
- Gross MW: 774
- Net MW after Parasitic Load: 524
- Project Cost: $5.5 Billion
- CO2 Removal Rate: 65 %
- EOR Component: yes
- In-service Date: First-Half of 2015
- Website: http://www.mississippipower.com/about-energy/plants/kemper-county-energy-facility/home.cshtml
W.A. Parish Post-Combustion Project: Petra Nova, a 50/50 joint venture between NRG and JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration, is developing a commercial-scale post-combustion carbon capture project at NRG’s WA Parish generating station southwest of Houston, Texas. A video of the facility can be viewed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6uN32Gi_CDo
This project is designed to capture approximately 90 percent of the carbon dioxide (CO2) from a 240 MW slipstream of flue gas and use or sequester 1.6 million tons of this greenhouse gas annually. The demonstration project is expected to be operational in 2016. For more details, view our WA Parish Factsheet.
At 240 MW, Petra Nova WA Parish will be the largest post-combustion carbon capture project installed on an existing coal-fueled power plant. The technology has the potential to enhance the long-term viability and sustainability of coal-fueled power plants across the U.S. and around the world. The project has been selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to receive up to $167 million as part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative Program (CCPI), a cost-shared collaboration between the federal government and private industry.
Captured CO2 will be used to enhance production at mature oil fields in the Gulf Coast region.
A summary of the Project:
- Location: Southwest part of the Houston Metroplex
- Technology: Post-Combustion CCUS
- Capture Process: Mitsubishi Heavy Industry America System (MHIA)
- Gross MW: 250
- Net MW after Parasitic Load: 250 (the parasitic load is 80 MW and rather rob the amount of power relative to the 240MW gross generation, they plan to build a cogen plant that will more than take care of the parasitic load requirement)
- Project Cost : $1.0 billion
- CO2 Removal Rate: 90%
- EOR Component: yes
- In-Service Date: 2016
- Website: http://www.nrg.com/sustainability/strategy/enhance-generation/carbon-capture/wa-parish-ccs-project/
CCUS Technology & Coal Export Brochure which contains a summary of the projects and other information. Download here
Other CCUS Projects in Operation or Under Development:
Air Products & Chemicals (APCI) Port Arthur Project: Texas, United States. APCI is demonstrating a state-of-the-art system that concentrates CO2 from two steam methane reformer (SMR) hydrogen production plants located in Port Arthur, Texas.
Air Products has retrofitted its two Port Arthur SMRs with a vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) system that separates the CO2 from the process gas stream, followed by compression and drying processes.
These modifications concentrate the initial stream containing from 10-20 percent CO2 to greater than 98 percent CO2 purity. The compressed CO2 is delivered to the Denbury pipeline for transport to Texas EOR projects in the West Hastings Field where a monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) program ensures the injected CO2 remains in the underground geologic formation.
The technology removes more than 90 percent of the CO2 from the process gas stream with negligible impact on the efficiency of hydrogen production. The project became operational in 2012 and as of September 2013 has captured and sent over 500,000 short tons of CO2 to the Denbury pipeline for sequestration. The website is available http://www.airproducts.com/company/news-center/2013/05/0510-air-products-celebrates-texas-carbon-capture-demonstration-project-achievement.aspx
Summit Texas Clean Energy Project (TCEP): Penwell, Texas. The TCEP will be a greenfield integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) poly-generation facility with fully integrated CO2 capture. The project will produce electricity for export to the grid and other high-value marketable products, including CO2, urea, and sulfuric acid.
The IGCC facility will deploy Siemens commercial gasification and power block technologies. Two SFG-500 (500 MW-thermal) gasifiers will produce syngas that will be quenched, cleaned and shifted to a high-hydrogen concentration. The power block will consist of one SGT6-5000F combustion turbine, one triple-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and one SST-900RH reheat steam turbine for power generation rated at 400 MW (gross).
The facility will use Linde’s Rectisol® acid gas removal technology to capture about 90 percent of the total CO2 produced from the facility. The captured CO2 will be divided into two streams. About 20 percent of the CO2 will be used to produce urea fertilizer. The balance of the CO2 will be compressed for transport by existing regional pipelines to oilfields in the west Texas Permian Basin for beneficial use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations with concomitant geologic storage.
The west Texas Permian Basin is the largest market in the world for CO2 -flood EOR. Permits have been received and the project is expected to be operational by 2018. The website is available http://www.texascleanenergyproject.com/
Hydrogen Energy California Project (HECA) IGCC: California, United States. California, United States. DOE is providing financial assistance to Hydrogen Energy California LLC (HECA), along with private capital cost sharing, to demonstrate an advanced coal-fired generating plant that co-produces electricity and fertilizer products. The project will employ integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to nominally generate up to 280 MW (net) of electricity and produce approximately one million tons per year of fertilizer using a 75 percent coal and 25 percent petroleum coke fuel blend. The CO2 off-take agreement contemplated by HECA will enable geologic storage of CO2 at a rate of approximately 2.6 million metric tons per year. The captured CO2 will be transported via pipeline to the Elk Hills oil field for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The project is currently in the permit application phase. http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/factsheets/project/FE0000663.pdf
Leucadia Energy, Port Charles Project: Louisiana, United States. This project will demonstrate the capture of CO2 from an industrial facility for use in an independent enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application. The industrial source of CO2 will be a petroleum-coke-to-chemicals (methanol, hydrogen and other by-products) gasification plant being developed by Lake Charles Cogeneration, LLC (a Leucadia Energy, LLC, affiliate) in Lake Charles, Louisiana. Once the CO2 is captured, it will be purified to remove contaminants and compressed to a pressure suitable for commercial pipeline transport to oil fields for EOR. The project will also implement a comprehensive monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) program to confirm the long-term sequestration of a minimum of one million tons per year of the injected CO2 at the Hastings oil field in Texas. Operations are scheduled to begin in late 2017.
Archer Daniels Midland Company, CO2 Capture and Storage Project: Illinois, United States. This project will demonstrate an integrated system for collecting CO2 from an ethanol production plant and geologically sequestering it (deep underground storage) in a sandstone reservoir. The CO2 produced is a byproduct from processing corn into fuel-grade ethanol at the ADM ethanol plant. The CO2 will be sequestered in the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a prolific saline reservoir in the Illinois Basin with the capacity to store billions of tons of CO2. Super-critical CO2 fluid will be injected into the saline reservoir at a depth of approximately 7,000 feet at a site adjacent to the ADM ethanol plant. Nearly 50 years of successful natural gas storage in the Mt. Simon Sandstone indicates that this saline reservoir and overlying seals should effectively contain sequestered CO2. The project became operational in 2014.
FutureGen 2.0 Project: Illinois, United States. The Project scope includes the definition, design, procurement, manufacture, installation, startup, commercial operation and testing of an integrated oxy-fired coal plant with CO2 capture, purification and compression. The plant will generate approximately 167 MW gross output when using a blended fuel comprised of Illinois bituminous and Powder River Basin coals. Approximately 1 million metric tonnes per year of CO2 will be captured and compressed for transport and delivered for storage in the Mt. Simon saline formation. Power Purchase Agreements were signed in 2013 and the project is expected to begin operation in 2017.
Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) Projects: United States. A Development Phase large-scale injection demonstration is currently underway at a corn to ethanol processing facility in Decatur, Illinois. Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) and Schlumberger Carbon Services are key industry partners for this project, which will inject 1 million metric tons of CO2 over a period of three years. As of October 2013 over 600,000 metric tons of CO2 had been injected. The target formation receiving the CO2 is the Mt. Simon Sandstone saline formation, one of the most significant potential carbon storage resources in the United States. A comprehensive MVA program which includes shallow groundwater, soil gas, resistivity, and atmospheric monitoring is being implemented—in operation.
Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership (PCOR) Projects: United States. The PCOR has identified, quantified, and categorized 927 stationary sources in the region that have an annual output of greater than 13,600 metric tons of CO2. PCOR is also planning to conduct two Phase III: Development projects. The first large-scale test, the Bell Creek project, is sending CO2 from the Lost Cabin gas plant in north-central Wyoming through a pipeline. This EOR project will utilize nearly 900,000 metric tons of CO2 per year. Injection of CO2 began in May 2013. This will provide a significant opportunity to develop a set of cost-effective MVA protocols for large-scale anthropogenic CO2 transport and storage associated with an EOR operation. The second test may ultimately be the largest application of deep saline geologic storage in the world. If proven feasible, this project will provide permanent storage of 1 million to 2.2 million metric tons of CO2 per year from the Fort Nelson gas processing facility in northeastern British Columbia.
Modular CTL/GTL Facility located in Cheyenne, WY: Under a public-private partnership with Remediation Earth, Inc.; Homeland Fuels Company, Inc.; and Western Research Institute will convert coal to diesel and capture carbon for enhanced oil recovery and fracking. The process will integrate two WRI developed technologies with those of REI and HFC and will include a unique CO2 capture process. The project will be sited at the Swan Ranch Industrial Park near Cheyenne, WY and is scheduled for construction in 2015.
For more information please contact: email@example.com
Test Facilities of Interest for CCUS:
There are a number of test facilities across North America either in operation or under development. Those in which the WIA is monitoring and supporting are as follows:
National Carbon Capture Center: The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) has responding to the call for the development of cost-effective CO2 capture technologies for coal-fired power generation. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the NCCC provides first-class facilities to test developers’ technologies for extended periods under commercially representative conditions with coal-derived flue gas and syngas, thereby accelerating development of cost-effective CO2 capture technologies and ensuring continued use of coal for power generation.
The NCCC tests and evaluates CO2 control technologies including CO2 capture solvents, mass-transfer devices, low cost water-gas shift reactors, scaled-up membrane technologies, and improved means of CO2 compression. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity. The two main areas of research include pre-combustion CO2 capture and post-combustion CO2 capture.
Southern Company manages the facility which started testing pre-combustion capture technologies on a small scale in July 2008 and started testing post-combustion capture projects on a larger scale in June 2011. Southern maintains a technology screening pool of carbon capture technologies which now has over 600 developers. The NCCC has tested 27 technologies to-date and is currently under active negotiation with 28 more pursuant to a detailed screening process prior to testing. This is an ongoing operation which will be a contributor to identifying commercial solutions to carbon capture. Additional information is available http://www.southernresearch.org/environment-energy/alabama-operations-power-systems-and-environmental-research/national-carbon-captu
CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad (TCM): Located in Norway, Statoil was responsible for the construction of TCM which was completed in 2012.
Construction work started in the summer of 2009 after Vassbakk og Stol had completed the groundwork. Then AF-gruppen started the work on the foundation, concrete work, installing piping, constructing the cooling water inlet in the sea and a new electrical distribution station. Kruse Smith carried out the concrete work for Aker Clean Carbon, while Skanska performed comparable work for Alstom.
LAB was responsible for the construction of the administration complex which opened in October. The 5000-metre administration complex comprises offices, meeting rooms, several operations rooms to run the test facilities, as well as a workshop, laboratory, warehouse, etc.
TCM is now testing two different technologies, from Aker Clean Carbon and Alstom, respectively, for capture of CO2 from two flue gas sources with different CO2 content. The objective of the testing is in part to qualify the technologies for large-scale cleaning of exhaust gas, while simultaneously developing cost-effective technology solutions.
The technology centre at Mongstad is the largest planned pilot project of its kind, with an annual capacity for handling up to 100,000 tonnes of CO2. The following companies own TCM:
Gassnova SF (75.12)
Statoil ASA (20%)
A/S Norske Shell (2.44%)
TCM DA has its own management, which is responsible for operations and the testing programmes.
TCM is owned by potential end users of the CO2 capture technology. The goal is to bring in additional owners, and the South African energy company Sasol has signed a letter of intent concerning participation.
TCM has two exhaust gas sources: gas turbine exhaust from the new thermal power plant at Mongstad and exhaust from the refinery’s cracker. The exhaust gas is relevant for a number of industrial processes, including gas and coal power plants.
After a comprehensive evaluation TCM selected two processes http://www.tcmda.com/en/Technology/, a chilled ammonia process from Alstom and an amine process from Aker Clean Carbon (ACC). Shell Cansolv has just commenced the testing of its advanced CO2 capture process http://www.tcmda.com/en/Press-center/News/2014/Shell-Cansolv-starts-testing-at-TCM/ .
The absorber towers are used to test amine-based and chilled ammonia-based capture technologies. For CO2 capture after combustion, amines or chilled ammonia are used to absorb CO2. When the flue gas passes through the towers, most of the CO2 will bond with the amine or the chilled ammonia.
A video about the facility is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFxuBjVl4P8
SaskPower’s Carbon Capture Test Facility (CCTF): SaskPower is helping advance CCS knowledge and technology through the creation of the Shand Carbon Capture Test Facility (CCTF). This provides technology developers with an opportunity to test new and emerging carbon capture systems for controlling carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants.
Located at the SaskPower Shand Power Station near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada, the facility is designed to provide a robust evaluation of the collection efficiency, long-term stability, operability, maintainability and reliability of amine-based, post-combustion technologies. The CCTF has been designed to accommodate a wide range of solvents. It has the capacity to add and remove process equipment, change the configuration of vessel internals, and expand the height of the key absorber vessel.
Developed in collaboration with Hitachi, Ltd., SaskPower’s CCTF enables clients to evaluate the performance of their technologies in a commercial setting. Construction began in early 2013, and is scheduled for completion in early 2015.
Along with the physical facility, SaskPower is establishing a technical team to deliver world class testing and analytical results. The knowledge and experience gained from the facility will be used to support the Boundary Dam Integrated Carbon Capture and Storage Demonstration Project and future CCS projects worldwide.
After initial demonstration by Hitachi, Ltd., the CCTF will provide a unique platform where further competitive technologies can be evaluated. A video relative to the facility may be viewed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8Wp88qQQSI. The website is available http://www.saskpowerccs.com/ccs-projects/shand-carbon-capture-test-facility/